I. Understanding Sharia Law
Understanding Islam would not be complete if we do not know its laws. Through punish rules derived from Islamic values can be implemented. In Islam there are two kinds: the law and legal taklifi wadh’I.
Taklifi law is the law that describes the commands, prohibitions and the option to run or leave an activity / job. For example: the law relating to command such as prayer, pay Zakat etc.. Wadh’I law is the law concerning the cause of something, conditions and obstructions. For example: the law of inheritance.
II. The purpose of Sharia Law
The purpose of sharia law there are three kinds, namely:1. Purification soul, make good dispersers Muslims are not the cause of evil.2. Uphold justice in society, both with fellow Muslims and non Muslims.3. Beneficial to the entire universe is not only human.
III. Legal Resources
Sources of law in Islam there are five, namely:
1. Qur’an2. As Sunnah3. Scholarly consensus is the consensus of the mujahid in a period after the death of the Prophet Muhammad.4. Fatwa friend5. Qiyas
IV. Division of Law Taklifi
Based jumhur scholars (ulama majority opinion), the law is divided into five types, namely:
1. Mandatory is a command which if not undertaken innocent. Mandatory divided into two kinds:
a. Mandatory who had a wide-called mandatory muwassa. Keluasaan time it allows us to carry out worship others.b. Shall have a limited time called mandatory mudhayyaq. Worship can only be executed at a given time and can not be done outside these times. as examples of fasting in Ramadan, the Hajj in the month Dzulhijah.
2. Sunnah is rewarding act which if implemented and if not exercised it will lose money, although not sinful. Sunnah is divided into three kinds:
a. Muakkad Sunnah, the Sunnah which is run by the Prophet Muhammad in a continuous, eg two cycles after Fajr prayers.b. Muakkad Ghairu Sunnah, that is sunna that are not made continuously, for example: pray four rak before Dhuhr.c. Sunnah under both, that is a habit that carried the Prophet Muhammad as bersiwak (brush teeth).
3. Namely freedom permissible for Muslims to carry out a job or leave it. Examples of eating, drinking, etc..
4. Makruh namely a prohibition against an act by Islamic rules but do not be sure because there is no proof that shows it is haraam, leaving the act was admirable and reprehensible work.
5. Haram is the prohibition to do a good job which is based on the proposition qath’i and zhonni.
Thus, simply to say if the act was the culprit left behind will get a reward and when executed innocent. Haram there are two kinds, namely:
a. Dzatihi li-Haram, the act that is forbidden by God, because the danger is there in the act itself. For example, eating carrion, drinking wine, adultery, etc..b. Li-ghairi/aridhi Haram, the act which is prohibited by Shari’a where the ban is not lies in the act itself, but such actions can lead to haram li-dzatihi. For example, buying and selling taking usury, see female genitalia, etc..